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Studies of mtDNA diversity among Native Americans have been used to hypothesize several different scenarios for the initial peopling of the Americas (Torroni et al. 1992, 1993; Horai et al. 1993; Merriwether et al. 1995). These studies have focused on identifying the source population(s), the number of waves of migration, and the time of entry of Native Americans into the New World and have revealed that nearly all Native Americans belong to one of five mtDNA haplogroups: A, B, C, D, or X (Schurr et al. 1990; Forster et al. 1996). A linguistically and geographically diverse set of Native American populations contains all five of these haplogroups. This pattern of haplogroup distribution for A, B, C, and D was demonstrated by Merriwether et al. (1995) and Lorenz and Smith (1996), and for haplogroup X it was demonstrated by Smith et al. (1999). All of these haplogroups were shown to exhibit similar amounts of genetic diversity (Bonatto and Salzano 1997a; Lorenz and Smith 1997) and have been identified in prehistoric Native North American samples (Parr et al. 1996; Stone and Stoneking 1998; Carlyle et al. 2000; O'Rourke et al. 2000; Kaestle and Smith 2001; Malhi 2001). Bonatto and Salzano (1997b) demonstrated that Greenberg’s (1986) proposed Eskimo-Aleut, Na-Dene, and Amerind linguistic groups (once considered to represent three different waves of migrants from Asia to the Americas) all contain haplogroup A individuals who display the nucleotide position (np) 16111 C→T transition that is not found in Asia (the exception being the Chukchi, who gained it probably as a result of back migration; see Forster et al. 1996 and Starikovskaya et al. 1998), suggesting a single New World (Beringian) origin for this mutation. These lines of evidence suggest that North America was peopled by a single wave of Asian migrants.

We the Diné planned for to kill or extinct the original Ye’iitsoh Giants  / both the new Giants called Ye'iitsoh libahi too which is the Gray Giants that is a new beginning of new race the normal Navajo human Ye’iih / the events with giants are now songs in the winter game called Keshjee' or sometimes known as shoe-game, we beat the Giants in every aspect of the knowledge includes cosmology / astronomy, and remember COYOTE chopped the Giants' leg off in the darkness of Tacheeh / and he said haha, while taking sweat-lodging with the Giants / the older Twin killed the Ye'iitsoh that his very first victims because the single walking Giants were eating people, consuming all the water, this is amazing story / you got to be a Navajo to make the story interesting / plenty of ancient Giants remains surfacing  in New Mexico, Smithsonian cover ups the existence and story for agesRuble’s

Cahokia are the Naask’id diné’e


Piautes is "Beiyoodzin", we know them for ages as Beiyoodzin or 'Ayoo be'iinizįįd, Ye'iitsoh Diné'e,


See Navajo Ye'iih with RED hair and blue, white skin

The Ancient Giants of Nevada and the Mystery of Lovelock Cave
PUBLISHED 22:17, 18 AUGUST 2015

Was North America once inhabited by a race of giants? According to an old legend supported by several challenging archaeological finds, it is possible.

Many Native American tribes tell stories about the long-forgotten existence of a race of humans that were much taller and stronger than ordinary men. These giants are described as both brave and barbaric and legends often mention their cruelty towards whomever they pleased.

The Paiute, a tribe that settled in the Nevada region thousands of years ago, have an outstanding legend about a race of red-haired giants called the Si-Te-Cah. The ancestors of the Paiute described them as savage and inhospitable cannibals.

In the Northern Paiute language, ‘Si-Te-Cah’ literally means ‘tule-eaters.’ Legend has it that the giants came from a distant island by crossing the ocean on rafts built using the fibrous tule plant.

As odd as it may sound, this legend repeats itself all over the Americas, suggesting it might be an incomplete chronicle of a real event that happened long ago.
In Crónicas del Perú, sixteenth century Spanish conquistador Pedro Cieza de León recorded an ancient Peruvian tale about the origin of the South American giants. According to legend, they “came by sea in rafts of reeds after the manner of large boats; some of the men were so tall that from the knee down they were as big as the length of an ordinary fair-sized man.”

Could the giants of Peru and the
Si-Te-Cah have been survivors of a massive cataclysm who took refuge on the American continent? (Si-Te-Cah this Piatue word is mostly is the same word as Sįįłgoh sįįłgoh sįįłgoh means hurry hurry "Si is Sįįł and te is De? and Cah is for sure Goh where is C is now G, vowel A is O, h is suffix nasal, they tell the Giants to hurry maybe they are too tall hardly run)

Legend tells that the Si-Te-Cah waged war on the Paiute and all other neighboring tribes, spreading terror and devastation. Finally, after years of conflict, the tribes united against the common enemy and began to decimate them. The last remaining red-haired giants were chased off and sought shelter inside a cave. The tribes started a fire at the cave entrance, suffocating and burning alive the Si-Te-Cah. Those driven out by the smoke were also killed.

The tribes then sealed off the mouth of the cave so that no one might set eyes on those who had once plagued their land. They were all but forgotten until a random event brought them back to light.

In 1886, a mining engineer named John T. Reid happened to hear the legend from a group of Paiutes while prospecting near Lovelock, Nevada. The Indians told him that the legend was real and the cave was located nearby. When he saw the cave for himself, Reid knew he was onto something.

Reid was unable to begin digging himself but news spread and soon, Lovelock cave was attracting attention. Unfortunately, the attention was profit-driven as guano deposits were discovered inside. A company started by miners David Pugh and James Hart began excavating the precious resource in 1911 and had soon shipped more than 250 tons to a fertilizer company in San Francisco. Any artifacts that might have been discovered were probably neglected or lost.

After the surface layer of guano had been mined, strange objects started to surface. This led to an official excavation being performed in 1912 by the University of California and another one took place in 1924. Reports told about thousands of artifacts being recovered, some of them being truly unusual.

Although their claims have not been verified (it comes as no surprise), sources said the mummified remains of several red-haired ancient giants were found buried in the cave. Measuring between 8 to 10 feet in height, these mummies have since been referred to as the Lovelock Giants.

Another intriguing find was a pair of 15 inch-long sandals that showed signs of having been worn. Allegedly, other unusually large items were recovered but have since been locked away in museum warehouses and private collection.

A piece of evidence that remains on-site until this day is a giant hand print, embedded on a boulder inside Lovelock Cave. We won’t go into further debate pertaining to this aspect and its implications.

Needless to say, this discovery has led many into believing the Paiute legend of the
Si-Te-Cah might be more than just folklore.

Around the same time as the second Lovelock Cave excavation, another dig revealed a set of equally-disturbing finds. According to a 1931 article published in the Nevada Review-Miner, two giant skeletons had been found buried in a dry lake bed close to Lovelock, Nevada. The over-sized remains measured 8.5, respectively 10 feet in height and were mummified in a manner similar to the one employed by ancient Egyptians.graph here.


Beiyoodzin Diné’e nihita holǫ́ diish jįįd akoh nihik’ei at’e, ałk’idąą’ éi Beiyoodzin binaa’ dadootł’iizh nit’ee’ naana bitsii’ do’ daałchíí’ nit’ee’ ła’ shįįh t’adii akoh daat’e, akoh  ayoobe’iinizįįdjiní aadooh Diné doo beehoziniih do’ wołyeh daa’yeh meaning We don’t know where they actually coming but are descendants from Giants of the Southwest, Giants of the Shadi’aah (south), There are presently a Piautes clan among the Navajos today as part of ancient Navajo socio-cultural institution, ,

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