May 5, 2016
These self inflicted information made themselves believe in artificial creation of their origin, these same people tells we were still migrating down from north when Spanish was coming from south lol,
NEW FINDING: How Europeans “Evolved White Skin Theory” Turned Upside Down
A new genetic analysis of an ancient European hunter-gatherer man has revealed that he had dark skin and blazing blue eyes which has lead scientist to rethink how white skin evolved. The new analysis of that DNA now shows the man had the gene mutation for blue eyes, but not the European mutations for lighter skin – and since the man, who lived in modern-day Spain only about 7,000 years ago, may mean that light-skin genes in Europeans evolved much more recently than previously thought. The experts were astonished to find a combination of African and European genes in the ancient caveman, and they christened him La Brana 1. Scientists studied the hunter gatherer’s DNA after they found his frozen skeleton buried in a subterranean cave in Cantabria in northern Spain.
Nature – the journal – published the study which suggests that light skin evolved not to adjust to the lower-light conditions in Europe compared with Africa, but instead to the new diet that emerged after the agricultural revolution. “It was assumed that the lighter skin was something needed in high latitudes, to synthesize vitamin D in places where UV light is lower than in the tropics,” says co-author Carles Lalueza-Fox, a paleogenomics researcher at Pompeu Fabra University in Spain.
“What seems likely, then, is that the dietary changes accompanying the so-called Neolithic revolution, or the transition from food collection to food production, might have caused, or contributed to cause, this change,” said Guido Barbujani, president of the Associazione Genetica Italiana in Ferrara, Italy. In this food-production theory, the cereal-rich diet of Neolithic farmers lacked vitamin D, so Europeans rapidly lost their dark-skin pigmentation only once they switched to agriculture. It was at this point that they had to synthesize vitamin D from the sun more readily.
In the food-production theory, the cereal-rich diet of Neolithic farmers lacked vitamin D, so Europeans rapidly lost their dark-skin pigmentation only once they switched to agriculture, because it was only at that point that they had to synthesize vitamin D from the sun more readily.
Another study presented at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, offered dramatic evidence of recent evolution in Europe and shows that most modern Europeans don’t look much like those of 8000 years ago. So while most of us think of Europe as the ancestral home of white people the study shows that pale skin, as well as other traits such as tallness and the ability to digest milk as adults, arrived in most of the continent relatively recently.
◦The modern humans who came out of Africa to originally settle Europe about 40,000 years are presumed to have had dark skin, which is advantageous in sunny latitudes. And the new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes—SLC24A5 and SLC45A2—that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.
◦But in the far north—where low light levels would favor pale skin—the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.
◦Then, the first farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe; they carried both genes for light skin. As they interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.
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Languages of the World
6,912 languages in the world (Ethnologue)
Most widely spoken languages (approximate
numbers of first and second language speakers):
Mandarin Chinese, over 1 billion
English, 500-750 million
Hindi, 500 million
Spanish 400-500 million
Russian 250-300 million
Arabic, 250-300 million
Bengali, 150-250 million
Portuguese 150-250 million
Malay-Indonesian, 150-250 million
French 130 million
German, 130 million
Japanese, 130 million
Over 1000 different languages spoken in Africa
Over 800 different languages spoken in Papua
About 600 different Native-American languages
Some 200 different Australian Aborigine languages
of them have less than 10 speakers; some two
dozen have only
About 165 different languages spoken in the
Tó ahani da bik’ei
Honágháahnii One walk around Clan
Naaneesht’ézhi Táchii’nii The Charcoal Streaked Division of the Red Running into the Water Clan
Tó’áhani Near the water Clan
Ta’neeszahnii Tangle Clan
Hashk’ą ą hadzohí Yucca Fruit
Strung Out In A Line Clan
Nóóda’í dine’é Táchii’nii The Ute People Division of the Red Running Into the
Nihoobáanii Gray Streaked Ends Clan
Ts’ah yisk’idnii Sage Brush Hill Clan
Dólii dine’é Blue Bird People Clan
Dził t’ahnii Mountain Cove Clan
Naasht’ézhí dine’é Zuni Clan
Dził ná’oodiłnii The Turning Mountain People Clan
"Blue-eyed humans have a single, common ancestor (Genetic mutation which took place 6,000-10,000 years ago)
"Variation in the colour of the eyes from brown to green can all be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes."
Credit: Cristian Ardelean
New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. A team at the University of Copenhagen have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye colour of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.
Taos kah is Caucasian and to the Navajos it means to scattered out throughout the world by water, Diné doo bilaghąąnaah t’aała’iigii at’e
Tó aháni éi Biłaghąąnaah at’e, Diné anałyeeh goh Tł’iish biłįį’ ba’anaanałyaah, Tł’iish éi Tó biyi’ dinaagha doo Ni’ do’ yokaanaagha naana Kǫ’ do’ at’e
Geographic distribution + Diné ałtaas éi
Haplogroup X is one of rarest matrilinear haplogroups in Europe, being found only is about 1% of the overall population. The highest incidence of haplogroup X is observed in Greece (4%), Macedonia (3%), Romania (2.5%) and around the Caucasus, notably among the Avars (5%), Adyghe-Kabardin (5%), Karachay-Balkars (4.5%), Nogays (4%), Dargins (3.5%), Armenians (3.5%), Azeri (3.5%), North Ossetians (3%) and Georgians (3%). In Western Europe, X peaks in Orkney (7%), Scotland (2.5%), Catalonia (2.5%) and the Basque country (2.5%).
The only Eurasian ethnic group possessing a relatively high percentage of haplogroup X are the Druzes of Lebanon, Syria and Israel, among whom X makes up 15% of maternal lineages. The Druzes also have the greatest diversity of X lineages of any population, possessing X1a, X1c, X2b, X2e, X2f, X2h and X3 lineages. Non-Druze populations in the Levant have far lower frequencies of X, between 1% and 2% only. Haplogroup X is completely absent from the Volga-Ural region and Lapland, in the extreme east and north of Europe, respectively.
The X2a subclade is also found among many indigenous Amerindian people from North America, notably among the Sioux (15%), the Nuu-Chah-Nulth (11%–13%), the Navajo (7%), and the Yakama (5%).
Distribution of mtDNA haplogroup X in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Distribution of mtDNA haplogroup X in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East