Nihizaad éi nihidił at’e nihidił éi nihizaad at’e
"Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska"
Stretching from Baja California to New Mexicoand from Utah and Colorado south to the r egions of Sonora and Chihuahua, the southwestern region of
North America is characterized by diversity in landscape and culture.
"The people indigenous to this region include speakers of the Yuman, Seri, Piman, and Southern Athapaskan (Na-Dene) languages, as well as the culturally defined Pueblo groups. The languages and cultures of these five groups differ markedly, and the five are presumed to have experienced separate origins and prehistories. The study of prehistory of the southwestern region of North America is dominated by evidence of geographically widespread archaeological cultures practiced by multiethnic groups exhibiting marked language diversity. Ironically, in contrast to the great linguistic diversity, the region is genetically characterized by a remarkably homogenous and high frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup B (Lorenzand Smith, 1996). Using a larger and more representative sample of populations and mtDNA sequence data, this study examines the genetic structure of the descendants of the multiethnic Hohokam and Anasazi cultural traditions as well as the natureof the hypothesized Uto-Aztecan and Southern Athapaskan migrations into or from the Southwest region."
(Hajíínái bidaa’gi ałtaah na’ashchį jiní, t’aah aadąą’ Diné ałtaas éi holǫ jiní, GENETIC mixture at the rim of emergence according to Navajo way of human origin, development and migration on Earth)
Tribal and clan structure
All Northwest Coast groups have some form of anexogamous matrilineal clan system. In these systems, clan status is passed from mothers to their children.Based on this status, individuals have access to speciﬁc clan territories for hunting and ﬁshing, and can useclan-speciﬁc crests for decorating clothing and dwellings (Olson, 1967; Emmons, 1991; Kaplan and Barsness,1986; de Laguna 1990b). The clan system is comprised by two moieties or reciprocating descent groups. For theTlingit and Eyak, clans are grouped into Raven (Yeil) orEagle/Wolf (Ch’aak’/Gooch) moieties (Kaplan and Bars-ness, 1986; Emmons, 1991; de Laguna, 1990a, b). Traditionally, moiety membership inﬂuenced marriage practices, whereby persons belonging to Eagle clans would marry those from Raven clans, and vice versa.
Like the Tlingit and Eyak, the Haida are grouped into two moieties, although the clans belonging to the Haida Eagle moiety would belong to the Tlingit Raven moiety (Blackman, 1990). By contrast, the Tsimshian have four phratries instead of two moieties (Miller and Eastman, 1984; Halpin and Seguin, 1990; Miller, 2000). Thus, all Northwest Coast populations are organized into maternally linked clans, grouped into exogamous units, which inﬂuence their social and ritual practices, and probably also their genetic make-up.
Historical period in Southeast Alaska
European entry into the region created new patterns of cultural and economic interactions in Southeast Alaska. In the mid-1700s, Russians began exploring the region for exploitation of its natural resources (Frost,
2003). By the late 18th century, Russian, Spanish, English, and French explorers had made contact with Tlingit populations (Fedorova, 1973; Tikhmenev, 1978; de Laguna 1990a; Wilber, 1993; Hope and Thornton, 2000; Haycox, 2002; Black, 2004; Dauenhauer et al., 2008; Grinev, 2008). The American purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 led to further settlement and exploitation of the region (Haycox, 2002; Borneman, 2004). The Klondike Gold Rush of 1898 opened Alaska to further natural resource exploitation, including ﬁshing, timbering, mining and oil drilling, which continues today, along with the inﬂux of many people of non-native descent to ﬁnd work in these industries since that time (Berton, 1959; Borneman, 2004)
Non-Indo-European Language Families
The Indo-European family of languages is fairly broadly distributed today--embracing perhaps half of the world's inhabitable surface area. However, the Indo-European family is limited in origin to those tongues appearing first in Europe, the Middle East, and India. Elsewhere in the world, a number of language-families seem to be completely unrelated to proto-Indo-European. Here are some the general families for these Non-Indo-European languages:
ALTAIC: A language family including Turkish, Tungusic, and Mongolian.
AFROASIATIC: A possible language family with two main branches--Hamitic and Semitic. See Semitic, below.
KECHUMARAN: A language family spoken in the Andes of South America.
KHOISAN: A language family encompassing southwestern regions of Africa.
NIGER-KORDEFANIAN: A group of languages spoken in the southern part of Africa
NILO-SAHARAN: An African language family spoken in the central regions of the continent.
SAMOYEDIC: A group of Uralic languages spoken in northern Siberia. See Uralic, below.
SEMITIC: A language family including Akkhadian, Amorite, Arabic, Ugaritic, Proto-Canaanite, Hebrew, Eblaite and Elamite.
SINO-TIBETAN: A group of languages spoken in China, Tibet, and Burma, including Mandarin
SUMERIAN: Sumerian is a difficult language to classify partly because it is the first known language to use a system of writing. Accordingly, it has no known roots. Adding to the difficulty, Akkhadian languages supplanted it--so it leaves no known linguistic descendants. The language was agglutinative and limited to the areas around Kish and Uruk. It was largely monosyllabic and cannot be connected with any other known languages.
The earliest Sumerian script consisted of about 2,000 non-phonetic cuneiform symbols--but later these were simplified to about 500-600.
URALIC: A language family including Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic.
UTO-AZTECAN: A language family found in Central America and the western sections of North America.
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Ancient Tiwanaku and Navajo ancient Ye'iih masks images are alike with the same messages and both cultural ritual's masks have Tsiiyeeł / Queue, and inverted cloud face and has five feathers in red, Tiwanaku mask is in red and yellow, the regrowth of the Earth's red people after cataclysm in the past, also is a T faced,
Hashtł’ishniih Nashdóitsoh Diné’e at’e is Original clan
Diné Bikeyah / Information
CLAN RELATIONSHIP GROUP 21
Tsin yee na’álo’íí carry items with a straight stick the belonging items are tied to both end of tne Carrier byTree Clan
Diné bidił éi dįįdi natsoi ji’ beehas ąh aadoo niwójį́’ éi doo hak’ei da 1-32
Nihidił nihizaad at’e, Nihizaad nihidił at’e jiní, éi beeh sodizin daholǫ́, akoh hąądahas ąągoh ha’at’ishįįh hąądahas ą́ní gii sodizin beehayabish dooł ti jini, ei gi’ it’ao Diné bisodizin hol̨ǫ́ǫ́n nit’ee’ łah
Diné doo Dziłghą'i
Chíshí doo Deeshchii'niih Dziłghą'i adaat'e
"Studies based on uniparentally inherited markers have shown that the Y-chromosomal gene pool of Greenlandic people comprises approximately equal numbers of European and Inuit lineages,6, 7, 8, 9 but the set of mtDNA haplogroups revealed an overwhelmingly Inuit component, with no European lineages detected.10 More recently, Helgason et al4 reported evidence of an intricate pattern of mtDNA variation in Greenlanders. The analysis of different regions within Greenland showed high heterogeneity on the island, suggesting that, in addition to the Thule, other Inuit might have contributed to the current-day genetic variation of Greenlanders. The complexity of the Greenlandic population was also affirmed through recent studies based on whole-genome and mtDNA analyses of a Paleo-Eskimo.1, 11 Taken together, these studies provided indications of a sex-biased and heterogeneous process of admixture between North-European and Inuit populations that deserves to be further explored.
The present work focused on the analysis of autosomal and X-chromosomal data in Greenland, aiming to increase the knowledge of the history and diversity among Greenlanders. Owing to its mode of inheritance, the X chromosome is expected to retain signs of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for longer periods of time than autosomes. Unlike the analysis of mtDNA and the Y chromosome, which inform about the history of female or male lineages, respectively, the autosomes and the X chromosome allow the simultaneous study of both sexes. Moreover, the fact that males only have one copy of the X chromosome provides direct access to their haplotypes,12 which is an advantage for the direct study of LD when compared with autosomes. Taken together, the results show that genetic drift and a differentiated settlement history around Greenland were responsible for shaping the patterns of diversity observed in Greenlanders".
Cayce's Reading is interesting anciently, haploid is old to Americas and some 770,000 genes known to ancestry genetic groups
An Unknown and Unexpected Migration Group Confirmed "Blood O?"
In 1997, a 5th mtDNA haplogroup was identified in Native Americans.
"This group, called "X," is present in three percent of living Native Americans,Haplogroup X was not then found in Asia, but was found only in Europe and the Middle East where two to four percent of the population carry it. In those areas, the X haplogroup has primarily been found in parts of Spain, Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, and Israel.
In July 2001, a research letter was published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, relating that a few people with the "X" type had been identified in a tribe located in extreme southern Siberia. These people, called the Altasians, or Altaics as Russian geneticists refer to them, have always lived in the Gobi Desert area.
Archaeologists and geneticists are certain that the presence of "X" in America is not the result of historic intermarriages. It is of ancient origin. In addition, the "X" type has now been found in the ancient remains of the Basque.
Among Native American tribes, the X haplogroup has been found in small numbers in the Yakima, Sioux, and Navaho tribes. It has been found to a larger degree in the Ojibway, Oneota, and Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribes. The Xhaplogroup has also been discovered in ancient remains in Illinois near Ohio and a few other areas near the Great Lakes. It has not (so far) been found In South or Central American tribes including the Maya.
The X haplogroup appears to have entered America in limited numbers perhaps as long ago as 34,000 B.C. Around 12,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.
C. it appeared in much greater numbers.
It is important to note that not all Native American tribes have been categorized by mtDNA analysis and that relatively few ancient remains have been tested."
"Because all living people in Europe and Asia carry roughly the same amount of Neandertal DNA, Pääbo's team thought that the interbreeding probably took place in the Middle East, as moderns first made their way out of Africa. Middle Eastern Neandertal sites are close to Skhul and Qafzeh, so some researchers suspected that those populations were the ones that mingled. But the team's analysis favors a more recent rendezvous. The femur belonged to an H. sapiens man who had slightly more Neandertal DNA, distributed in different parts of his genome, than do living Europeans and Asians. His Neandertal DNA is also concentrated into longer chunks than in living people, Pääbo reported. That indicates that the sequences were recently introduced: With each passing generation, any new segment of DNA gets broken up into shorter chunks as chromosomes from each parent cross over and exchange DNA. Both features of the Neandertal DNA in the femur suggest that the Ust-Ishim man lived soon after the interbreeding, which Pääbo estimated at 50,000 to 60,000 years ago."