"After examining radiocarbon dates, pollen, macro-fossils and DNA from the lake sediment cores, the researchers found that the corridor’s chokepoint was not “biologically viable” to have sustained humans on the arduous journey until 12,600 years ago—centuries after people were known to have been in North America. Willerslev’s team found that until that time the bottleneck area lacked the basic necessities for survival, such as wood for fuel and tools and game animals to be killed for sustenance by hunter-gatherers."
FOUNDATION of Navajo Creation
Fibonacci Number Series
Mathematics of Fibonacci number creation is Tácheeh, its 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 each is called Sadiih its by itself, o, 0+1=1, 1+1=2, 2+1=3, 2+3=5, you add 2 more as door post, that makes it 5, the beginning the creation the Navajo way of knowing
Great holy weekend with Nihighaał bee' iina, the beginning in the making of the Tacheeh songs, leadership songs, and story of essential of the sweatlodge the Trinity = Taa', Tacheeh the THREE makes the Tacheeh, Taa'goh t'aałichi'i / great good morning folks
Interest GROUPS interest in Navajo ways are emerging here and there, Dine Bizaad, Fundamental laws, Cultures groups this is amazing resiliences
"In the Lake Baikal area the most famous archaeological remains come from Mal'ta on the Angara River. People lived here between 25,000 and 13,000 years ago in subterranean houses, which were winter dwellings, using animal bones to support a roof made of locked reindeer antlers and covered with hides or sod. Mal'ta is famous for its ivory carvings of mammoth, women and birds. Other artifacts from Mal'ta show that the people buried arctic fox after skinning them. And a child's burial place has also been excavated.
In the Middle Aldan Valley remains of a group of settlements have been found. At an important site called Dyukhtai Cave the Russian archaeologist, Yuri Mochanov, found mammoth and muskox remains together with spear and arrow points flaked on both surfaces. Also found were burins, blades, and large stone choppers. Because the cave had been undisturbed, reliable radiocarbon dates indicated that Dyukhtai had been used by Siberian hunters from 14,000 to 12,000 years ago. Mochanov argued that these same hunters were the people who had followed mammoth and other big game into North America by 11,000 years ago. This claim has not been scientifically proved because no other evidence has been excavated through archaeological investigation which would show that the Dyukhtai people did travel across Beringia.
Another argument suggesting that the ancestors of America's native people came out of Siberia comes from Cristy Turner, a scientist studying the physical characteristics of human teeth. He pores over human teeth and jaws looking for the differences and similarities between the teeth of the Pleistocene Siberian hunters and modern Native American peoples. He has found that the teeth of the Pleistocene people who lived at Dyukhtai are different from the teeth of the people who traveled across Beringia. Turner suggests that the Siberian hunters who followed the animals into North America are not the same as those hunter living at Mal'ta and Dyukhtai, but are hunters who lived in northeastern Siberia, closer to Beringia. Turner thinks that the settlement of North America by these Siberian hunters took place as they traveled through eastern Mongolia and the Upper Lena Basin, across eastern Siberia and from there into Beringia.
Archaeological and anatomical (teeth) evidence shows that possibly several different groups of humans were living and hunting in Siberia during the late Pleistocene and that these various groups of people had the technology to enable them to hunt the animals which migrated across the Beringia. As yet solid evidence showing which group of Pleistocene hunters crossed Beringia is scant, although it is certain that America's first people did emigrate out of Siberia.
The emigration out of Siberia led the Pleistocene hunters and their families into Alaska and eventually deeper into North and South America. Over a few thousand years these peoples utilized the animals and plants found in the new land and because the climate did not change appreciably they didn't have to change their cultural habits greatly. However, over time conditions began to change.
First, the climate of the Pleistocene became drier and warmer as the glacial ice retreated into the Arctic, approximately 10,000 years ago. Large geographic areas which had been lakes (such as Lake Bonneville) dried up, forests shrank and man of the large Pleistocene animals upon which the people had depended became extinct. Secondly, the people themselves had become very skilled at hunting the large animals with spears and atlatl. Possibly, the hunters, by over hunting animal species which were already under stress from a changing climate and habitat, contributed to the extinction of the mammoth, camel, horse and giant ground sloth. Third, the changing climate also forced the people to find the needed resources at greater distances as plants and animals spread out over greater areas in order to survive. At 10,000 years ago the people were forced to change their hunting patterns. After the extinction of the mammoth, camel, horse and sloth they had to hunt fleet running animals like deer, elk, and rabbits. The people also were forced to leave regions which before 10,000 years had provided enough resources, but after 10,000 years had become dry, desert areas which did not provide sufficient resources.
This changing climate altered the easy simple lifestyle of the hunters and forced the people to experiment with other cultural solutions. One solution adopted by some tribes was to domesticate plants, such as maize, squashes and beans, and begin to experiment with horticulture. Horticulture meant living in sedimentary villages and hunting only to supplement the plant crop. Horticulture meant developing ceremonies to encourage the spirits to provide rain and protect the crops. Horticulture meant depending on unreliable plants to grow and harvest. Horticulture meant digging irrigation ditches to supply water from distant areas. The risks and labor investment involved with horticulture were greater than the risks of hunting."
Americas and its People of long ago and present time Diné ałtaas ei
(quoting Rafinesque) “Many other empires having begun to rise in the vicinity of Aztlan, such as those of Bali [Indonesia, perhaps Oppenheimer’s Eden in the East?], Scythia [Russian steppes], Thibet, Oghuz [Lake Baikal area], the Iztacan were driven eastwards, north of China; but some fragments of the nation are still found in the Caucasus, &c. such as the Abians or Abassans, Alticezecs [Altai Turks], Cushazibs, Chunsags, Modjors, &c.
–“The six Iztacan nations being still pressed upon by their neighbours the Oghuzians [Uigur Turks], Moguls [Mongols], &c. gradually retreated or sent colonies to Japan, and the islands of the Pacific ocean; having discovered America at the peninsula of Alasca [Alaska, a Chinese word], during their navigations, the bulk of the nation came over and spread from Alasca to Anahuac, establishing many states in the west of America, such as Tula [Toltec], Amaquemeca, Tehuajo [Tewa, Tiwa, Tawa], Nabajoa [Navajo], Teopantla, Huehue, and many others.
–“After crossing the mountains, they discovered and followed the Missouri and Arkanzas rivers, reaching thus the Mississippi and Kentucky (26-27).”
Ni'hodiłhił The Emergence to the First World
"The story starts in the Running-Pitch place or Jaadiłkood. Haashch'eeh zhini, the son of the Fire, whose mother is a Comet, and Ałtse Hasttiin, the first man, who is the son of Night and whose father is Nahodeetł'iizh, which is the blue above the place where the Sun has set, were there; also Ałtse Asdzaah, who is the first woman, whose mother is the Daybreak and whose father is Nahootsoi which is the yellow light after the Sun has set; also Ałtse Hashke or Coyote Man, whose mother is Yah-zheh-kih, or the Dawn Light. The fifth who is there is Begochiddy, the blue-eyed andyellow haired god, the great god, whose mother is a Ray of Sunlight, Shabitł'ooł, and whose father is the Daylight, Shadįįn; also Ashįįh Asdzaah, the Salt Woman whose mother was To asdzaah, or Water Woman, and whose father was Tsilth-tsa-assun, or Mountain Man. (He looks like a woman but is a man.) These are the six people who were living on the dark earth or first world, Jah-dokonth.
On the dark earth Begochiddy built in the east a white mountain; in the south a blue mountain, in the west a yellow mountain, and in the north a black mountain, and he also made mountains surrounding all the dark earth and the colored mountains, and these were called Tsilth-nah-n’ deel-doi, which means colored mountains which appear and disappear; and in the center of the world Begochiddy made a red mountain.
He also created the red ants, Wołachii', and the black ants, Wołazhini, which run in a line on the logs in the mountains, the yellow ants, Wolałtsoi, and wood ants, Wolachii aditsah, which are half red and half black, also Nicky-dol-zholi or p. 40 gray ants. He named them as they were created and smiled as he made them. He also made Nahasan-bihoghandi, which lives in the ground, and Wołazhini, which is a tiny black ant, also Ni'honeeyani, or “black bug which flies around”, and which is the Midge.
On the east side under the mountains he planted some bamboo, or Lok'aa'tsoh. On the south side he planted big sunflowers, Nidiyiłitsoh. On the west side under the mountains he planted Lok'aa', or reed. On the north side under the mountains he planted small sunflowers, Nidiyiłi.
After Begochiddy had created these things he gave them Saad ła'i Tsa-tlai (First Law). In the first world there was one law, in the second two laws, in the third three laws, and in the fourth four laws.
Begochiddy now created K'adeesdis (Wound in a Rainbow), who is both man and woman. By this time the ants that he had created had increased very much.
Haashch'eeh zhini asked Begochiddy why there should be only one law and why he, Haashch'eeh zhini, should not be able to make some laws. Begochiddy answered: “I made the law, and there shall be no other.” So Haashch'eeh zhinigrew angry and said: “Just because you have made the ants and man, you think you are very great and for that reason I will burn the things you have made and the world, too.” And four days later Haashch'eeh zhini started burning the world.
Begochiddy told the first man, Ałtse Hasttiin, to go to the east mountain and get some earth and some of the Lok'aatsoh plants and bring them back to him, and he told Ałtse Asdzaah, the first woman, to go to the south mountain and bring him some of the big sunflowers, N’idiyiłitsoh, and Ałtse Hasttiin also went to the west mountain and brought back earth and Lok'aa' (reed plants), and Ałtse Asdzaah also went to the north mountain and brought earth and small sunflowers, Nidiyiłi.*
In the center of the red mountain Begochiddy stuck the Lok'aatsoh, the big bamboo, and all of the creatures that he had created entered into it. The bamboo now started to grow with all that were in it, growing higher and higher until it reached the second world, the blue world, Nahodootł'iizh dasikah, overhead, and grew into it. The little tiny black ants came out first into the new world and after them the rest of the ants and then the people, and next to the last came Ałtse Haske, and last of all Haashch'eeh zhini. When all had climbed out of the bamboo, Begochiddy pulled the bamboo up into the second world and Haashch'eeh zhini blew into the hole four times which made the hole close up and the first world burned up and is still burning."
Note: leading specialists in cave art (past and present) include: Denis Peyrony (1869-1954), an authority on cave painting in the Perigord; Henri Breuil (1877-1961), perhaps the greatest of the early pioneers; Andre Leroi-Gourhan (1911-86), the first of the great modern archaeologists and paleontologists; Jean Clottes (b.1933), advisor to ICOMOS and UNESCO, arguably the greatest living expert on European Ice Age art.
PLEASE NOTE: For more information about the most famous caves, please see: Which are the Most Important Sites of Cave Art?